- Extensive Agriculture Defined
- History of Extensive Agriculture
- Types of Extensive Agriculture
- Advantages and Disadvantages of Extensive Agriculture
Extensive agriculture is a type of agriculture that uses large amounts of land and labor to produce relatively small amounts of food. It is the predominant form of agriculture in many parts of the world, particularly in developing countries.
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Extensive Agriculture Defined
Extensive agriculture is a type of farming that uses large amounts of land and labor to produce a small amount of food. This type of agriculture is typically found in developing countries where land and labor are inexpensive. The downside to this type of agriculture is that it is not very efficient and can lead to environmental degradation.
Characteristics of Extensive Agriculture
Extensive agriculture is a type of farming that uses large plots of land and few inputs, such as fertilizer and machinery. This type of agriculture is common in areas with low population densities, where it is not economically feasible to use intensive methods.
Extensive agriculture is characterized by low yields and high risks. Farmers who practice this type of agriculture often rely on subsidies from the government to make a profit.
In recent years, there has been a trend towards intensive agriculture in many parts of the world, as farmers attempt to increase yields and reduce risks. However, extensive agriculture remains the predominant form of agriculture in many parts of the world, particularly in Africa and Asia.
History of Extensive Agriculture
Extensive agriculture is a type of farming that uses large tracts of land and few inputs. It is the opposite of intensive agriculture, which is a type of farming that uses small tracts of land and many inputs. Extensive agriculture is the predominant form of agriculture in many parts of the world, including Africa, Asia, and Latin America.
The practice of extensive agriculture is thought to date back to ancient times, when it was first used by early civilizations in Asia and the Middle East. The technique allowed farmers to grow crops in areas with poor soil and limited water resources. Today, extensive agriculture is still used in some parts of the world, particularly in developing countries.
Extensive agriculture has a number of advantages. It is relatively cheap and does not require the use of expensive machinery or chemicals. This type of farming also has the potential to produce large quantities of food, making it an important tool for feeding growing populations. However, there are also some disadvantages to using this method. Extensive agriculture can damage the environment and lead to soil depletion and erosion. In addition, yields from this type of farming are often low, which can make it difficult to make a profit.
During the Middle Ages, Europe saw a dramatic expansion of agriculture as the population began to grow. This led to the development of new techniques and technologies, including the use of horses and plows, that allowed farmers to cultivate more land more efficiently. This period also saw the rise of feudalism, a system in which landowners granted plots of land to tenant farmers in exchange for goods, services, or money.
Extensive agriculture reached its peak in the 18th and 19th centuries, when advances in technology and transportation made it possible to grow crops on a large scale. This allowed farmers to sell their products outside of their local area, which led to increased trade and economic growth. However, it also had some negative consequences, such as environmental degradation from the use of chemical pesticides and fertilizers.
Today, extensive agriculture is still practiced in many parts of the world but is gradually being replaced by more efficient and sustainable methods of food production.
Early Modern Era
During the early modern era, 1600 to 1750, extensive agriculture began to emerge as a dominant form of farming in many parts of the world. This new type of agriculture was characterized by large-scale land ownership, the use of expensive machinery, and a heavy reliance on laborers.
In England, the enclosure movement began during this time, which saw the consolidation of small farms into large estates. This process increased the efficiency of agriculture but also led to the displacement of many small farmers.
The development of extensive agriculture coincided with a period of population growth and urbanization. The demand for food was greater than ever before, and farmers began to look for ways to increase their production. This led to the adoption of new technologies such as irrigation systems, crop rotation, and new types of plows.
Extensive agriculture quickly spread to other parts of Europe and then to the Americas. In many cases, it was brought over by European colonists who brought with them their knowledge and experiences from home. Extensive agriculture quickly became the dominant form of farming in much of the world and remains so today.
In the developed world, commercial agriculture accounts for the majority of food production, with animal husbandry accounting for a significant minority. A 2004 study found that in the United States, 83 percent of cropland and 80 percent of pastureland was used as agricultural land while only a quarter of forest land was.
Extensive farming is associated with large-scale land use and generally utilizes little technology or other inputs. It is usually synonymous with subsistence farming, which involves basic food production to meet the needs of the farmer and their family, although some commercial output may be generated.
Low external input and extensive agriculture systems are often found in regions with poor soils or harsh climates. They are also often used by subsistence farmers who cannot afford other methods. In developed nations, extensive agriculture is often associated with environmental degradation due to the large amount of land required to support it.
Types of Extensive Agriculture
Extensive agriculture is a type of farming that uses large tracts of land and few inputs. This type of agriculture is common in areas with low population density and low rainfall. It is also known as subsistence agriculture or primitive agriculture. The main goal of extensive agriculture is to produce enough food to feed the farmer and their family.
Livestock ranching is an agricultural enterprise that involves the raising of domesticated animals, such as cattle, pigs, sheep and horses, for meat or wool. It is a type of extensive agriculture, which is characterized by the use of large tracts of land and relatively low labor input. Livestock ranching is practiced in many parts of the world, but it is particularly associated with cowboy culture in North America and Portugal.
There are two main types of livestock ranching: beef production and dairy farming. Beef production involves the raising of cattle for meat. Dairy farming involves the raising of cows for milk and other dairy products. Livestock ranching can be a very profitable enterprise, but it requires significant investment in land and infrastructure.
Dairy farming is a type of extensive agriculture that involves the raising of cattle for milk production. Dairy farms typically contain large herds of cows, which are milked by hand or machine on a daily basis. The milk is then used to produce cheese, butter, and other dairy products.
Dairy farming has a long history, dating back to ancient times. In the Middle Ages, dairy farms were commonly found in Europe, and the milk from these farms was used to make butter and cheese. Today, dairy farms can be found in many parts of the world, including Europe, North America, and Australia.
Dairy farming is a labor-intensive process, as cows must be milked daily and farmland must be maintained. Dairy farms also require a significant amount of water for cleaning and watering the cows.
Dairy farming has a variety of environmental impacts. For example, large dairy farms can generate significant amounts of manure, which can pollute waterways if it is not properly managed. Dairy cows also emit methane gas, which contributes to climate change.
Despite these impacts, dairy products are an important part of the human diet, providing essential nutrients like calcium and protein. As such, dairy farming is likely to continue into the future.
Dryland farming is cultivation of land without irrigation. Most dryland farming is practiced in areas where the rainfall is insufficient to support cropping activities without supplemental irrigation. It is estimated that 60% of cropping areas worldwide and 86% of the world’s rainfed wheat areas are dryland farming regions (FAO, 2009).
Dryland farming systems are characterized by their reliance on rainfall as the primary source of water for crop production. This type of agriculture can only be successful if the climate is suitable. Dryland farming regions are determined by the amount and distribution of rainfall, as well as the length of the growing season. A minimum of 100-200 mm of evenly distributed rainfall during the growing season is necessary for successful dryland farming (FAO, 2009).
There are two main types of dryland farming: rainfed and supplemental irrigation. Rainfed systems rely solely on rainfall for water, while supplemental irrigation systems use supplemental water in addition to rainfall. In both cases, farmers must be able to effectively manage limited water resources in order to be successful.
Dryland farming systems are adapted to local conditions and often include a combination of crops and/or livestock. Crops common in dryland farming regions include wheat, maize, sorghum, millet, barley, oats, rye, chickpeas, lentils, and grasses. In arid regions, olive trees and date palms may also be grown. Dryland farmers must also carefully manage grazing in order to prevent soil degradation and maintain productivity (FAO, 2009).
Dryland farming presents many challenges to farmers due to the variable and often unpredictable nature of rainfall. Drought is a particular risk; even in years with average or above-average rainfall, periods of drought can occur which can lead to crop failure. To offset this risk, farmers often practice diversification by planting a mix of crops which are less likely to all fail in the event of a drought (FAO 2009).
Other risks associated with dryland agriculture include floods and wind erosion. Flooding can occur during periods of heavy rains which can damage crops or lead to soil erosion. Wind erosion can also be a problem in arid regions where strong winds blow away topsoil (FAO 2009).
Despite the challenges involved in practicing dryland agriculture, it plays an important role in food security worldwide. Roughly one quarter of the world’s population lives in dryland areas and approximately two billion people depend on dryland Agriculture for their livelihoods (FAO 2009).
Advantages and Disadvantages of Extensive Agriculture
Extensive agriculture is a type of farming that uses large areas of land and requires little labor. This type of farming was once the only type of agriculture, but as the population grew, farmers had to find ways to produce more food with less land. This led to the development of intensive agriculture.
The main advantages of extensive agriculture are that it requires minimal inputs, is relatively easy to set up, and is often highly profitable. This type of agriculture is typically used to produce large quantities of a single crop, such as wheat or corn.
Extensive agriculture is typically found in areas with large expanses of land that are not suitable for other types of agriculture, such as livestock grazing or intensive crop production. One of the most notable examples of extensive agriculture is the wheat fields of the Canadian prairies.
There are several advantages to this type of agriculture. First, it requires very little in terms of inputs, such as water, fertilizer, and pesticides. This makes it relatively easy and cheap to set up. Second, because larger fields can be planted with just a few crops, farmers can generate high profits per acre.
However, there are also some disadvantages to extensive agriculture. First, because it is so specialized, farmers are highly dependent on market conditions for their crop. For example, if wheat prices drop sharply, farmers may not be able to cover their costs and may go out of business.
Second, because extensive agriculture usually involves growing just one or a few crops, it can lead to environmental problems. For example, if all the farmers in an area grow wheat, then there will be very little genetic diversity among the plants. This makes them more susceptible to disease and pests.
While extensive agriculture has some advantages, there are several disadvantages to this type of farming. One of the biggest disadvantages is that it is not very efficient. This means that farmers may not be able to produce as much food per acre as they could with other methods.
Extensive agriculture can also be very hard on the environment. Because farmers are trying to get the most out of their land, they may use harmful chemicals and pesticides. These chemicals can end up in the soil, water, and air, and they can cause problems for people and animals.
Another disadvantage of extensive agriculture is that it can be difficult for farmers to make a profit. Because they are not able to produce as much food per acre, they have to sell their products for less money. This can make it hard for farmers to support themselves and their families.